Mardi 21 janvier 2020 — Séminaire DYNAMICS

INVITES :
  • Simone Bertoli (Univ. Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, CERDI, IZA, ICM);
  • Alexia Lochmann (PSE, Univ. Paris 1-Panthéon Sorbonne, ICM);
  • Matthieu Solignac (Univ. de Bordeaux, CNRS, Comptrasec, Ined, ICM);
  • Sorana Toma (ENSAE, ICM);
  • Liam Wren-Lewis (PSE/INRA, ICM).
HORAIRES ET LIEU :
  • 15:30-19:00 ;
  • Campus Condorcet, Centre des colloques, Salle 3.03.
RESUMES :

Simone Bertoli (Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, CERDI, IZA, ICM)
Co-residence patterns of the individuals left behind by Mexican migrants: evidence and analytical implications (travail conjoint avec Elsa Gautrain et Elie Murard)

The occurrence of an international migration episode is often associated with a change in the composition of the household of origin of the migrants. We draw on data from Mexico to show how these variations in co-residence choices have relevant implications for the analysis of the consequences of migration on the individuals left behind. The large-scale survey connected to the 2010 Census, which includes retrospective questions on migration, reveals that the wives and their children left behind by a male migrant very often start co-residing with their parents after the departure of the husband.These changes in household composition interfere with the ability of the survey to enumerate past migration episodes. This, in turn, entails that the survey misses a large number of women and children left behind by the migrants, which differ along relevant observable characteristics from those that are captured in the data.

Alexia Lochmann (PSE, Université Paris 1-Panthéon Sorbonne, ICM)
Fake news and cultural identity. Evidence from South Tyrol in 1939 (travail conjoint avec Max Viskanic)

This research paper aims at finding answers to the question of whether fake news can provoke an immediate response in the formation or manifestation of cultural preferences of the affected population. For this purpose, we carry out an event study, relying on a regression discontinuity design, to study whether parents changed the naming patterns of their newborn children following the spread of fake news around possible forced emigration. In 1939, the so-called “South Tyrol Option Agreement” between Mussolini and Hitler asked all German-speaking heads of households in Northern Italy to decide whether to stay in their homeland and accept the inevitable italianization, or to emigrate to Germany and preserve their cultural identity. The announcement of the policy was overshadowed by a series of fake news, historically named “Sicilian Legend”, according to which individuals who did not want to emigrate to Germany would be deported to the southernmost regions of Italy. This research paper shows that the fake news around the possible implications of the policy shook the affected population to the point of pushing them to strengthen their cultural identity. We analyze possible channels of the observed change in naming patterns and find the channel of strengthened cultural identity to be the most important one, as compared to activated cultural identity and a change in incentives. Furthermore, we look at possible heterogeneity of effects and find similar effects for male and female children, but a more pronounced effect for later born children as compared to first born children.

Matthieu Solignac (Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, Comptrasec ; Ined; ICM)
Homeownership of immigrants in France: selection effects related to international migration flows (travail conjoint avec Laurent Gobillon).

We investigate the difference in homeownership rates between natives and first-generation immigrants in France, and how this difference evolves over the 1975–1999 period, by using a large longitudinal dataset. We find that the homeownership gap is large and has remained steady. Entries into the territory have a large negative effect on the evolution of homeownership rates for immigrants. Although entrants have on average better education than people staying in the territory for the entire period (i.e. stayers), they are younger and thus at an earlier stage in the wealth accumulation process. They are also located in large cities, where the homeownership rate is lower, and the returns to their characteristics are lower than those for stayers. Leavers have a positive effect on the evolution of homeownership rates for immigrants because they have a low access to homeownership and they exit the country. But this effect is only one-fifth that of entrants. For stayers, we show that returns to characteristics change in favor of immigrants, which is consistent with assimilation theories. However, among stayers who access homeownership, immigrants end up in owned dwellings that are of lesser quality than natives.

Sorana Toma (ENSAE, ICM)
Social Position and Migrant Social Capital in International Migration from Africa to Europe (travail conjoint avec Mao-Mei Liu).

Social capital has been conceptualized as a mechanism through which socioeconomic inequalities are reinforced, and a growing body of labor market, education and health studies support this. In contrast, some migration scholars believe that migrant social capital can potentially broaden access to migration, but few empirical studies exist. We build on prior work by Nan Lin and Sandra Smith to examine individuals’ access, mobilization, and returns to social capital and how these are associated with their social position.  Using retrospective data from the Migration between Africa and Europe (MAFE) project, we study how individual social capital is stratified for migration to Europe from DR Congo, Ghana and Senegal. Our results suggest that access, mobilization and returns to social capital are deeply and differently stratified by social position. While high-status individuals have greater access to migrant networks, low-status prospective migrants are more dependent on migrant social capital to migrate and are more likely to mobilize it to help finance the trip.

Liam Wren-Lewis (PSE/INRA, ICM)
Impacts of diversity in a national volunteering program

This project aims to understand the impact of exposure to diversity over several months among youth who have volunteered for “service civique”.  By randomizing who volunteers are paired with, we will be able to measure the impact of spending time working with people from different backgrounds across a range of dimensions including immigration history, education level and gender. We will also explore whether pairings can have an impact on outcomes such as civic participation, political preferences or economic integration.